Rare Earth Elements, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
Praseodymium, Light Rare Earth Elements, LREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
REE Facts | HREE Facts | LREE Facts | Rare Metal Resource
LREE : 57 Lanthanum | 58 Cerium | 59 Praseodymium | 60 Neodymium | 61 Promethium | 62 Samarium | 63 Europium | 64 Gadolinium
HREE : 65 Terbium | 66 Dysprosium | 67 Holmium | 68 Erbium | 69 Thulium | 70 Ytterbium | 71 Lutetium | 39 Yttrium
Praseodymium, Light Rare Earth Elements, LREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
The Light Rare Earth Element
“Lesser Twin” Praseodymium
Tracy Weslosky, Editor, InvestorIntel
Source: REE Handbook

Praseodymium, REE Collection, ProEdge Media Corp. Praseodymium oxide is a catalyst to make the most widely used plastic for bubble wrap, food plastic wrap and soda bottles. Also used for welder and glass blower goggles to protect the eyes from yellow flare and UV light, the primary use of praseodymium is to combine it with neodymium magnets to increase their availability to supply growing demand for high-tech applications.

In 1841, Carl Mosander mistakenly thought that
didymium oxide, a natural mixture of praseodymium and neodymium, was a new element. It was another 44 years before the elemental twins, praseodymium and neodymium, were finally separated. His discovery was even given the symbol Di in Mendeleev's first edition of the periodic table in 1869.

Praseodymium is a silvery-yellow metallic metal that oxidizes moderately in air forming a green oxide coating. The metal is soft, malleable and ductile. Within a magnetic field, Praseodymium mixed with nickel PrNi5 cools to within one thousandth of a degree of absolute zero, -273.15 °C, the point where every molecule stops moving.

Large resources of praseodymium are contained in LREE-enriched minerals. Praseodymium occurs in the Earth's crust at an average concentration of 8 parts per million. The primary source of praseodymium is from carbonatites and the LREE-mineral bastnäsite. Bastnäsite deposits in China and the United States constitute the largest percentage of the world's rare-earth economic resources. Lanthanum is also a major constituent in the LREE-mineral monazite which constitutes the second largest segment of rare-earth resources. Monazite deposits are located in Australia, Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and the United States.

Praseodymium is mined from a variety of ore minerals and deposits using various methods. Bastnäsite is mined in the United States as a primary product from a hard-rock carbonatite. The deposit is mined via bench-cut open pit methods. Ore is drilled and blasted, loaded into trucks by loaders, and hauled to the mill. At the mill the blasted ore is crushed, screened, and processed by flotation to produce a bastnäsite concentrate. In China, bastnäsite and lesser amounts of associated monazite are also mined from a carbonatite. The ore is recovered as a byproduct of iron ore mining by hard-rock open pit methods. After crushing the ore is separated from the iron ore by flotation to produce a bastnäsite concentrate and a bastnäsite-monazite concentrate (Hedrick, 1990).

Monazite is recovered from heavy-mineral sands (specific gravity >2.9) deposits in various parts of the world as a byproduct of mining zircon and titanium-minerals or tin minerals. Heavy mineral sands are recovered by surface placer methods from unconsolidated sands. Many of these deposits are mined using floating dredges which separate the heavy-mineral sands from the lighter weight fraction with an on-board wet mill through a series of wet-gravity equipment that includes screens, hydrocyclones, spirals, and cone concentrators. Consolidated or partially consolidated sand deposits that are too difficult to mine by dredging are mined by dry methods. Ore is stripped by typical earth-moving equipment with bulldozers, scrapers, and loaders or by water jet methods. Ore recovered by these methods is crushed and screened and then processed by the wet mill described above. Special thanks: James Hedrick, www.REEHandbook.com

Praseodymium, Light Rare Earth Elements, LREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
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